Memory Systems and Working Operations

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Memory Systems and Working Operations

Unread postby amna haider » Mon Feb 03, 2014 10:34 pm

There are many types of memory systems but we are discussing
Caches Memory, Scratchpad Memory and Smart Memory Systems
Smart Memory System : 
Memory Managment : 
If you have passion and motivation for Research & Development
Engage with UCERD now and send your Idea/Problem/Solution
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Re: Memory Systems and Working Operations

Unread postby USMAN SHAHZAD » Wed Apr 01, 2015 7:32 pm

Cms Number 13881
Name M.Usman shahzad
Topic.Basic operating system;
main program that manage the hardware and softwsre. it is very important part of computer,
this path by which the instructions coming from the user go from the software to the hardware.
Operating System has four essential managers which work together a team to solve every problem and get every task from the user done.
1.Memory manager.
2.Process manager
3.Device manager
4.Network manage
The memory manager is the head of the main memory, it checks every request from the memory and utilize if it is valid or not, it allows the location of the memory space which is not to allowed, it can also reallocate the free space for our request.
The manager which allocate the brain of the computer which ic called CPU (central processing unit) it process the job which is under the execution in the system.It is necessary to the process manager to track each of the spaders process and to handle the system which are associate to this job.
It monitor every devices, channel and control unit which are connected to the computer it has to choose the most efficient weight which allocate in the system, USB , printers , Hard devices e.t.c are the example of the device managers.
The file managers checks every type of file that is in the system such as txt files and stored applications .it also give the permission so the user can operate the required file. it tells us the file is read only or read or write only.
These allows the user to share the information of hardware and software resources.
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Re: Memory Systems and Working Operations

Unread postby Tariq ahmed » Wed Apr 29, 2015 8:10 pm

cms 14357
Computer Memory is a storage area, which can be temporary or permanent. It contains all the data and information that is needed by a CPU.

Memory is the same basically switches such as transistors. Switches can be present in two states ON or OFF or HIGH or LOW, there is no third state. In ON state the switches represented by '1' and in OFF state switches are represented by a '0'. Similarly transistor can represent any of the two states.

there are two different types of memory.
• Random Access Memory(RAM)
• Read Only Memory(ROM)
RAM is basically a volatile kind of memory.
It stores input data, program functions, intermediate results and other information’s temporarily. The Data in the RAM is easily accessible than any other type of memory.
It can be read or write. it’s data will be lost if the system is turned off.
In some cases it’s data can be retrieved from data storage.
Different types of RAM:
DRAM is the most used form of a Ram
SRAM needs power to keep its data, but doesn't need the computer to be active.
Some SRAM chips are battery-backed. This type has a built-in battery to make sure no data is lost if the computer is turned off. Some computers have a little SRAM and mostly DRAM.
Comparison between DRAM and SRAM:
SRAM is able to store data as long as power/energy is used. There is no need to refresh it. SRAM can also be faster than DRAM. But SRAM is much more expensive than DRAM.
ROM is basically a non-volatile kind of memory.It permanently stores data. A hard disc is basically act as a ROM.
There are different types of ROM:
• Masked ROM:
This kind is written once, at the factory. It cannot be changed at all later on. Its main benefit is that it is very cheap to make.
It Can be programmed once.It Comes un programmed from the factory. Programming consists in removing connections. Has been replaced by EPROMs
This kind can be erased with UV light.
This kind of RAM can be erased using an electrical signal.
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Re: Memory Systems and Working Operations

Unread postby 13962 » Thu Apr 30, 2015 10:16 am

n psychology, memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information from the outside world to reach the five senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli. In this first stage the information must be changed so that it may be put into the encoding process. Storage is the second memory stage or process. This entails that information is maintained over periods of time. Finally the third process is the retrieval of information that has been stored. Such information must be located and returned to the consciousness. Some retrieval attempts may be effortless due to the type of information, and other attempts to remember stored information may be more demanding for various reasons.

From an information processing perspective there are three main stages in the formation and retrieval of memory:

Encoding or registration: receiving, processing and combining of received information
Storage: creation of a permanent record of the encoded information
Retrieval, recall or recollection: calling back the stored information in response to some cue for use in a process or activity
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Re: Memory Systems and Working Operations

Unread postby Ezaz Hassan Khan » Sun May 03, 2015 5:25 pm

C.M.S. NUMBER: 14414
SUBJECT: programming
SUBMITTED TO:Respected Tassaduq Hussain

What Every Programmer Should Know About Memory

In computing, memory refers to the devices used to store information for use in a computer. The term primary memory is used for storage systems which function at high-speed (i.e. RAM), as a distinction from secondary memory, which provides program and data storage that is slow to access but offer higher memory capacity. If needed, primary memory can be stored in secondary memory, through a memory management technique called "virtual memory".
The term "memory", meaning primary memory is often associated with addressable semiconductor memory, i.e. integrated circuits consisting of silicon-based transistors, used for example as primary memory but also other purposes in computers and other digital electronic devices. There are two main types of semiconductor memory: volatile and non-volatile. Examples of non-volatile memory are flash memory (sometimes used as secondary, sometimes primary computer memory) and ROM/PROM/EPROM/EEPROM.
There are two main types of Memory
1 .RAM
2. ROM
RAM (Random access Memory)
Volatile memory is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information. Most modern semiconductor volatile memory is either Static RAM
ROM (Read only Memory)
Non-volatile memory is computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered. Examples of non-volatile memory include read-only memory (see ROM), flash memory, most types of magnetic computer storage devices (e.g. hard disks, floppy discs and magnetic tape)
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