Introduction to Operating System

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Re: Introduction to Operating System

Unread postby maida shahzad » Sat Apr 25, 2015 5:12 am

CMS=14356
Topic: Introduction to Operating Systems
Definition:
An operating system, or OS, is a low-level software that enables a user and high-level program application software to interact with a computer’s hardware and data and other programs stored on the computer.

Explanation:
An OS performs basic tasks, such as recognizing input from keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of the files and directories on the disk and controlling peripheral devices such as printers.
Operating system provides a software platform on the top of which other programs, called application programs, can run.

Types of Central Managers:-
There are five major types of central mangers that are used in OS of every computer system. They are discussed below:-
1. Memory manager:
• It is the head of the main memory.
• It allows allocation as well as reallocation of memory spaces.
• It searches every request for the memory space and checks its validity.

2. Device manager:
• It monitors every device, channel and control-unit.
• It usually selects a very systematic way to allocate every peripheral device connected to the computer.

3. File manager:
• It works as a checker and checks every type of file that is available on the system.
• It also sets a permission that certain users can access only certain files.
• It tells us the type of the file .i.e., weather the file is read-only or write-only.

4. Process manager:
• It monitors the CPU of the computer system.
• It keeps the record of every process.
• It manages to controls each process that is associated with a task.

5. Network manager:
• It enables the user to share the information of hardware and software resources.
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Re: Introduction to Operating System

Unread postby zia khan » Wed Apr 29, 2015 7:41 pm

CMS (14310) SECTION A
BASICS OF OPERATING SYSTEM
Operating system is one of the most important program that runs on our computer system. It manages all other programs on the machine. It performs basic tasks such as
. Recognising input from the keyboard or mouse
. Sending output to the monitor
. Keeping track of files and directories on the disk
. Controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers
Generally there are four types based on the type of computer they control and the sort applications they support they include are (1) single user, single task (2) multi-user, multi-task (3) real time operating systems (4) single user, multi-tasking. Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other application programs can run. The application programs must be written to run on a particular operating system. Choice of operating system determines what application software you can run. Besides managing hardware and software resources on the system, the OS must change resources and memory. There are two broad tasks to be accomplished.
. Each process must have enough memory in which to execute. It can neither run into the memory space of another process nor be run into by another process. The different types of memory must be used properly so that each process can run most effectively.
In our computer system every operating system has FOUR central managers that work together in the form as like team of players. They include are
1 MEMORY MANAGER: It is like the head of the main memory. Checks every request from the memory and utilize if it is valid or not, allows the location of the memory space which is not to be allowed.
2 PROCESS MANAGER: Process the job which is under execution when we run any file in our computer. Brain of the computer system which is known as CPU (CENTRAL PROCESSSING UNIT) manages and controls each and every process.
3 DEVICE MANAGER: Monitors, every device which is connected with our computer system known as peripherals and the control unit are called the device. It changes the properties of our devices which are directly connected to our computer system.

4 FILE MANAGER: File manager checks every type of file that is in the system such TXT files and stored applications. It also gives permission to the user hence operate the required file. It tells us the file READ only or READ OR WRITE only.
5 NETWORK MANAGER: By networking users are able to share hardware and software resources. Network manager gives the security ensuring that network is protected from agent users. Making always be sure the network is available to users.
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Re: Introduction to Operating System

Unread postby Fazal wahid 14291 » Thu Apr 30, 2015 9:25 am

WHAT IS OPERATING SYSTEM

OPERATING SYSTEM:
Operating System is the set of commands and data which helps to run a computer.
operating system works as a bridge between user and computer.
it also help us to recognize system requirements and tells us about the software and harrd ware components of the computer.

FOR EXAMPLE
DOS - Disk Operating System
Windows
MacOS
Unix - Linux
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Re: Introduction to Operating System

Unread postby Ezaz Hassan Khan » Sun May 03, 2015 4:50 pm

SUBMITTED BY: EZAZ HASSAN KHAN
C.M.S. NUMBER: 14414
SUBJECT: programming
SECTION: A
TOPIC: operating system
SUBMITTED TO:Respected Tassaduq Hussain

OPERATING SYSTEM
INTRODUCTION:
An operating System (OS) is an intermediary between users and computer hardware. It provides users an environment in which a user can execute programs conveniently and efficiently.
In technical terms, It is a software which manages hardware. An operating System controls the allocation of resources and services such as memory, processors, devices and information.
SUMMARY:
An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware and controls the execution of all kinds of programs.


FUNCTIONS:
Following are some of important functions of an operating System.
• Memory Management
• Processor Management
• Device Management
• File Management
• Security
• Control over system performance
• Job accounting
• Error detecting aids
• Coordination between other software and users
MEMORY MANAGEMENT:
Memory management refers to management of Primary Memory or Main Memory. Main memory is a large array of words or bytes where each word or byte has its own address.
Main memory provides a fast storage that can be access directly by the CPU. So for a program to be executed, it must in the main memory. Operating System does the following activities for memory management.
• Keeps tracks of primary memory i.e. what part of it are in use by whom, what part are not in use.
• In multiprogramming, OS decides which process will get memory when and how much.
• Allocates the memory when the process requests it to do so.
• De-allocates the memory when the process no longer needs it or has been terminated.
PROCESSOR MANAGEMENT:
In multiprogramming environment, OS decides which process gets the processor when and how much time. This function is called process scheduling. Operating System does the following activities for processor management.
• Keeps tracks of processor and status of process. Program responsible for this task is known as traffic controller.
• Allocates the processor (CPU) to a process.
• De-allocates processor when processor is no longer required.
DEVICE MANAGEMENT:
OS manages device communication via their respective drivers. Operating System does the following activities for device management.
• Keeps tracks of all devices. Program responsible for this task is known as the I/O controller.
• Decides which process gets the device when and for how much time.
• Allocates the device in the efficient way.
• De-allocates devices.
FILE MANAGEMENT:
A file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation and usage. These directories may contain files and other directions. Operating System does the following activities for file management.
• Keeps track of information, location, uses, status etc. The collective facilities are often known as file system.
• Decides who gets the resources.
• Allocates the resources.
• De-allocates the resources.
OTHER IMPORTANT ACTIVITIES:
Following are some of the important activities that Operating System does.
• Security -- By means of password and similar other techniques, preventing unauthorized access to programs and data.
• Control over system performance -- Recording delays between request for a service and response from the system.
• Job accounting -- Keeping track of time and resources used by various jobs and users.
• Error detecting aids -- Production of dumps, traces, error messages and other debugging and error detecting aids.
• Coordination between other softwares and users -- Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems



CONCLUSION.
Operating Systems as a solution for sharing hardware resources amongst multiple operating systems. We have presented its architecture and suggested an implementation method for the ix86 using Linux as the base OS. We have also defined areas of applicability. Although the implementation discussion has centered around on the ix86 using Linux, the concepts presented may be extended to other architectures and other base operating systems in order to provide the same capabilities. Given the current state of the operating system market and the research field. This would provide system administrators and programmers with the flexibility needed to develop user-friendly operating environments and applications that are not limited by the choice of a single operating system.
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Introduction to Operating System

Unread postby 13745 » Mon May 04, 2015 8:44 pm

Introduction to Operating system

OPERATING SYSTEM:

Definition:-
Operating system is software that works as an interface between a user and the computer hardware.
Example:-
There are following some examples of OS.
a) UNIX
b) LINUX
c) MS-DOS
d) MS WINDOWS -98/XP/Vista
e) Windows NT/2000,
f) Window 7 & 8 etc.



Explanation:-
•OS performs the basics tasks such as receiving input from keyboard, processing instructions and sending output to the screen.
•OS manages overall activities of computer and input/output devices attached to it.
•It is software that is required in order to run application programs and utilities.
•It works as a bridge to perform better interaction between application programs and hardware of computer.
•It manages the sharing of internal memory among multiple applications.
•It sends messages to each application or interactive user about the status of operation and any errors that may have occurred.
•The primary objective of an OS is to make computer system convenient to use and to utilize computer hardware in an efficient manner.
•OS manages hardware and software resources of computer system such as processor, memory, disk space etc.

Types:-
There are following types of OS.

1)GUI:-
Graphical user interface operating system contains graphics and icons.
2) Multitasking:-
An operating system that is capable of allowing multiple software processes to run at the same time.
3) Multi-user:-
It allows for multiple users to use the same computer at the same time and different times.
4)Multiprocessing:-
An operating system capable of supporting and utilizing more than one computer processor.
5)Multithreading:-
OS that allows different parts of software program to run concurrently.
6)Embedded system:-
The OS designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources.
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